kwartalnik - rok powstania: 1964 Federacja Stowarzyszeń Naukowo-Technicznych NOT (FSNT-NOT)
BIOLOGIA SYNTETYCZNA Summary: Towards the end of the XXth century, genetics expanded its scope not only in the field of structure and mechanisms of heredity, owing to progress in nucleic acid research including efficient sequencing and reassembly methods, but in acquiring precise tools which enable construction of new forms of life. Synthetic biology marks a radical change in practices of genetic manipulation from random mutations followed by selection, to design of specific DNA transformations attainable by application of genetic engineering methods. Mastering enzymatic gene splicing procedures and chemical synthesis of polynucleotides allowed perceiving macromolecules of life as “parts" or “bricks" amenable to specification, cataloguing and also fit for applications commensurable with the rules of engineering. The purpose of synthetic biology is to apply defined macromolecular constructs (abstracted from living matter or synthetic) as modules for construction of devices, sensors or switches, which can ultimately be integrated into self-sustained systems. Target applications of synthetic biology products ranges from biotechnological manufacturing of energy, fuels, chemicals, food and pharmaceuticals, through marker sensors and diagnostic devices, to various classes of therapeutics like antibodies, vaccines, probiotic microbes or modified immune cells. Thus, synthetic biology becomes an integral part of the prospective switch from present industrial reality to circular bioeconomy, which is the greatest challenge facing humanity. Keywords: bioeconomy, bioengineering, biotechnology, xenobiology, biotransformations, biological constructs and devices, genetically modified organisms Streszczenie: Na przełomie stuleci genetyka zyskała, w wyniku dogłębnych badań nad kwasami nukleinowymi, nowe specyficzne narzędzia modyfikacji materiału genetycznego, nieporównywalnie skuteczniejsze od wykorzystywanych uprzednio przypadkowych mu więcej » Czytaj za darmo! »AN ATTEMPT TO ESTIMATE CO2 EMISSIONS CAUSED BY ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN POLISH AGRICULTURE DOI:10.15199/180.2019.4.2
PRÓBA OSZACOWANIA EMISJI CO2 WYNIKAJĄCEJ Z ZUŻYCIA ENERGII W POLSKIM ROLNICTWIE Summary: Based on Central Statistical Office (GUS) data and emissive indicators according to the National Center for Balancing and Managing Emissions (KOBiZE), emission of carbon dioxide, caused by direct energy consumption in Polish agriculture in 2015, has been estimated. The value of this emission totaled 12 535,0 Tg (thous. metric tons). It was 86,9 Gg per 100 ha of utilized agricultural area (UAA) and 877,2 Gg per 100 farms. Solid fuels had the largest share (46%) in CO2 emission, including steam coal - 27,7%, and wood and peat - 16.7%. The share of liquid fuels amounted to 41%, including diesel oil 39% in CO2 emission. The share of other energy carriers amounted to a total 13% in CO2 emission. Electricity caused 10% of the total CO2 emission resulting from consumption of energy carriers in agriculture, gaseous fuels - in total 2% (of that liquid petroleum gas 1,3%), and heat - 1%. Emission of CO2 resulting from the diesel oil consumption in agriculture amounted to 4 906,6 Tg (34,1 Gg·100 ha-1 UAA and 343,4 Gg per 100 farms). The consumption of the diesel oil in agriculture of particular voivodeships in 2015 has been estimated as proportional to the share of these voivodeships in national resources of selected categories of the agricultural land. This consumption amounted from 39 thou metric tons in Silesian Voivodeship to 205 thou metric tons in Mazovia voivodeship in 2015. Based on diesel oil consumption regional distribution, the CO2 emission resulting from its use has been calculated for particular voivodeships. Yearly CO2 emission per unit of UAA amounted from 30,9 Gg·100 ha-1 UAA in Warmia- and Mazury Voivodeship to 35,2 Gg·100 ha-1 UAA in Silesian voivodeship, with the country average 34,1 Gg·100 ha-1 UAA. Yearly CO2 emission per 100 farms amounted from 124,1 Gg per 100 farm in Małopolskie Voivodeship to 958,5 Gg per 100 f więcej » Czytaj za darmo! »THE ROLE OF WHOLESALE MARKETS IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT DOI:10.15199/180.2019.4.3
ROLA RYNKÓW HURTOWYCH W ROZWOJU OBSZARÓW WIEJSKICHSummary: In the Republic of Poland, agricultural sector is of a greater socio-economic importance than in Western European countries. There are still regions in which agriculture plays the role of one of the main branches of the economy, affecting the level of their development and standard of living of the inhabitants. In the Republic of Poland, the rural area, according to the terminology used by the Central Statistical Office (CSO), is the territory outside the administrative boundaries of cities. According to this criterion, rural areas occupy the area of 291 400 km2 in the Republic of Poland, which is 93% of total country territory. Wholesale markets are an important element of the institutional infrastructure in rural development. The paper presents the importance of regional and local wholesale markets and their importance in rural development. Keywords: rural areas, agri-food market, fruit and vegetable market, flower market, wholesale market Streszczenie: W Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej sektor rolny ma większe znaczenie społecznogospodarcze niż w państwach Europy Zachodniej. Wciąż istnieją regiony, w których rolnictwo pełni rolę jednej z głównych gałęzi gospodarki, wpływającej na poziom ich rozwoju i standard życia mieszkańców. W Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej obszar wiejski, zgodnie z terminologią stosowaną przez Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS), to terytorium pozostające poza granicami administracyjnymi miast. Zgodnie z tym kryterium, obszary wiejskie zajmują w Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej powierzchnię 291,4 tys. km2, co stanowi 93% obszaru kraju. Ważnym elementem instytucjonalnej infrastruktury w rozwoju obszarów wiejskich są rynki hurtowe. W pracy przedstawiono znaczenie regionalnych i lokalnych rynków hurtowych i ich znaczenie w rozwoju obszarów wiejskich. Słowa kluczowe: obszary wiejskie, giełda rolno-spożywcza, rynek owocowo-warzywny, rynek kwiatów, rynek hurtowy TThe main problem więcej » Czytaj za darmo! »AUDIT OF THE CONTINUITY OF IT IMPROVEMENT IN MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISE - CASE STUDY DOI:10.15199/180.2019.4.4
AUDYT CIĄGŁOŚCI DOSKONALENIA SYSTEMU INFORMATYCZNEGO W PRZEDSIĘBIORSTWIE PRODUKCYJNYM -Summary: The text of the present publication contains the problems of the range of auditing the computerised IT system of the enterprise management in the frames of the process and cross approach. The audit of the computer IT system, employed in the manufacturing enterprise is used for the improvement of the system that is functioning in the specified conditions. The IT computer systems in the enterprises integrate a given enterprise via linking of the particular operations which cross (horizontally or vertically) its organizational structure. In the situation of the permanent changes in the enterprise, the employed IT computer systems for service of the processes must also undergo changes. In the publication, the range of auditing the IT computer system with the aim to improve it, have been presented. The paper is focused on identification of narrow links of the system and the statement of the problems, occurring in the manufacturing plant. The work is a form of case study, developed on the grounds of the situation occurring in the enterprise, belonging to a foreign corporation which produces - at the territory of Poland - systems and equipment for management, control and supervision of movement of track vehicles. The currently employed IT computer systems in the company are as follows: ERP class system, the system for documentation management, the system for management of the requirements for the railway sector (IBM Rational DOORS), the system for management of the projects, the system for designing and scheduling the production, the system for tracing the circulation of the documents, the package of Business Intelligence class for data analysis and reporting and the solutions based upon the Excel sheet. Key words: IT computer system, audit of IT computer systems, improvement oif IT systems in enterprise Streszczenie: Na treść publikacji składa więcej » Czytaj za darmo! »"TO BE USEFUL FOR THE NATION" STANISŁAW WAWRZYNIEC STASZIC DOI:10.15199/180.2019.4.5
Summary: Stanisław Staszic was born on December 6, 1755 in Piła. He died on January 20, 1826 in Warsaw. He was an activist and political writer, naturalist, philosopher and ideologist of the Polish Enlightenment. Staszic was one of the most outstanding representatives of the thoughts of Polish enlightenment, he exerted a multilateral influence on the intellectual life of the country, especially after 1800. As a political journalist, he made his debut with Notes on the Life of Jan Zamoyski (1787) and Cautions for Poland (1790), criticizing the flaws of the Polish political system he saw the main reason for her weakness, and postulating extension of burgher rights; the brochure On Polish Statistics (published in 1807) contained guidelines regarding the organization of the state in the spirit of Enlightenment rationalism and was an expression of support for French orientation. His study in geology of the Carpathians and other mountains and plains of Poland (1815), which together with the geological map of Poland and neighboring countries (one of the first maps of this kind in the world) constituted the first attempt at a synthetic approach to Polish geology, as well as description of the Tatra Mountains, which he visited in 1805. He presented his views on the evolution of social and political relations in an intricate historiosophical poem Human Family (1819-20, confiscated by censorship). As a philosopher, he preached a monistic concept of the world, based on the principle of development arising from the law of nature. After the fall of Emperor Napoleon I, he was a supporter of a close relationship between the Polish lands and Russia, convinced of the coming of the era of the Slavs united under her aegis (Pan-Slavism). Keywords: thought of Polish enlightenment, Polish state, political journalist, philosopher, monistic concept of the world, law of nature, Streszczenie: Stanisław Staszic urodził się 6 grudnia 1755 r. w Pile. Zmarł 20 st więcej » Czytaj za darmo! »STANISŁAW STASZIC COMPETITION FOR THE BEST INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS "LAUREL OF INNOVATION 2019"
KONKURS IM. STANISŁAWA STASZICA NA NAJLEPSZE PRODUKTY INNOWACYJNE "LAUR INNOWACYJNOŚCI 2019" December 10th, 2019 a ceremonial Gala for announcing the results of the 9th edition of the Competition named after Stanisław Staszic for the best innovative products LAUREL OF INNOVATION 2019. The goal of the Competition organized by the Federation of Scientific and Technical Associations NOT is to promote modern products, technologies and services, and the idea behind this undertaking is to believe that the key to the development of the Polish economy is to promote innovative products and their creators, and to help implement innovative solutions that are to contribute to the economic development and competitiveness of the Polish economy. Guests of the ceremony were, among others: - Mr. Wiesław KOŁODZIEJSKI- President of the Mazowieckie Credit Guarantee Fund, representative of the Marshal's Office of the Mazowieckie Voivodeship - Ms Karolina DORYWALSKA - Director of the Communication and Marketing Department of the Polish Agency for Enterprise Development - Mr. Radosław PLESKOT - from the Depar więcej » Czytaj za darmo! »