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Characterization of friction stir welds of 6013 and 6013/2017A aluminium alloy sheets

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The Friction Stir Welding (FSW) takes place due to rotation and movement of FSW tool. A tool moves the welded materials along its edges. As a result of the FSW process good quality of a weld is obtained below the melting point. The FSW weld consists of particular zones: the weld nugget (area in the centre), thermomechanically affected zone and heat affected zone. The weld nugget is frequently surrounded by rings known as an onion microstructure (rings) especially within the FSW welds of the aluminium alloys of 6XXX series. The microstructure and properties of the particular zones depend strongly on the welding parameters [1] and the type of the welding tool pin and shoulder. For example, a grain size within the weld nugget was found to depend strongly on the linear velocity of the tool [2]. The various studies of the aluminium alloys that underwent friction stir welding show various dislocation densities within welds’ nuggets [3]. The hardness in the region of the weld can change in many ways [4, 5]. The welds formed by FSW between the aluminium alloy sheets and especially between the 6XXX series alloys are much better than those formed by a high-temperature welding methods like Gas Metal Arc Welding especially due to lower temperature of welding [6]. The FSW technology is applied presently for welding of the aluminium and magnesium alloys as well as copper, steel, composites and dissimilar materials [7÷10]. The alloys of the 6XXX series are often applied in the constructions and transportation industry. The 6013 aluminium alloy has broad application in the production of many car parts like vehicle structure, wheels, panels and others [11]. The mentioned alloy can be welded by the means of the FSW method similarly as other alloys of the 6XXX series [11, 12]. Uzun et al. [13] signaled the possibility of welding the alloy with steel. Therefore, the aim of the paper was to analyze the microstructures and properties of the [...]

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