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Microstructure and kinetics of intermetallic phases growth in Ag/In/Ag joint obtained as the result of diffusion soldering

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Environment protection and improving the quality of joints are two main bases of the present development of modern technologies of different materials joining. The environment protection trend came into being in the 1990’s in the USA and later it also spread over Europe and Japan. The main aim is working out soldering materials able to replace the Sn-Pb solders commonly used so far. This can be obtained by eliminating cadmium and lead which are the components of soft solder used in conventional soldering process. Additionally, RoHS 2002/95/EC directive of the European Parliament and Council of January 27, 2003 orders the member countries to limit the use of some hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment. Soon another directive was issued: WEEE 2002/96/EC - Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment referring to the problem of the used up electrical and electronic equipment and its reusing, recycling, and other forms of recovery. It imposes the responsibility for storing and recycling hazardous substances on the manufactures. Hence, a lot of information concerning new methods of joining materials can be found in the literature. The electronic industry is a good example. Assembly line production of circuits of high integration scale with many units sensitive to high temperature and joined in a very short time enforces applying a special soldering process so that the solder area is as small as possible. Diffusion soldering meets such requirements. The joint made in this way takes up 6 times less space than in the case of conventional soldering and it can work at the temperatures higher than 350°C [1, 2], and it often shows mechanical and thermal stability at temperatures 2÷3 times higher than the joining temperature. Moreover, the surfaces to be joined do not require special preparation, which remarkably shortens the production time [3]. The example here could be circuits on the basis of SiC and semiconduct[...]

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