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Modeling and Analysis Range Extender for Battery Electric Vehicles DOI:10.15199/48.2019.02.29

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Greenhouse gases emitted by internal combustion engines are mainly: carbon dioxide CO2, carbon monoxide CO, sulfur oxides SOx, nitrogen oxides NOx, hydrocarbons, methane and particulates [1]. As one of theories says, greenhouse gases emitted largely by road transport are responsible for intensifying climate change such as global warming and smog in cities [2]. The simplest solution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is to reduce the fuel consumption of the vehicle. On this basis, the European Union sets strict requirements regarding the reduction of emissions of harmful substances into the environment, forcing automotive companies to use more and more advanced technologies. To achieve this goal, designers and constructors strive to reduce the resistance of vehicle movement by reducing: vehicle weight, aerodynamic resistance and rolling resistance [3]. The most effective solution to reduce the emission of harmful greenhouse gases is to focus the development of the automotive industry on the improvement of vehicles powered by electricity. The primary disadvantages of electric vehicles include their short range, which is caused by limited capacity of the available batteries and the time needed to charge them, which ranges from a few minutes to even several hours. There are many different technological solutions that aim to increase the range of vehicles while minimizing the emission of harmful greenhouse gases. These solutions include, inter alia, the installation of power lines for the vehicle, installed over the road on which it moves [5] or the construction of a road covered with photovoltaic panels with devices for wireless transmission of energy directly to the vehicle [6, 7]. Another solution to augment an electric propulsion system is to support it with a combustion engine [8-10], micro gas turbine [11-13], fuel cells [14-20], supercapacitors [21], or various types of batteries with the possibility of their charging w[...]

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