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Physical Modelling of Metal Bath Flow in the Tundish and Importance of Validation Experiments

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Accuracy and thus the applicability of physical modelling results in the field of metallurgical processes must respect the basic rules of similarity theory and practice between the two systems. The choice of model geometry (length) scale is one of the basic factors which must be very carefully determined. This paper deals with the assessment of the impact of the geometric scale of the physical model of a tundish on the coincidence of the simulation results. Two models of an identical operating tundish designed on the scales 0.2 and 0.25 (1:5 and 1:4) were used for the experimental study. Different boundary conditions, including changes in the geometry of the bottom without any kind of impact pad (e.g. “Turbostop") were used to study the correctness of the similarity theory betwe[...]

Microwave heating in iron metallurgy

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This article discusses the possibility of using microwaves for heating materials in the steel industry. Initially, basic theoretical aspects and properties of electromagnetic radiation were discussed and were compared with conventional heating. The second section of article shows results of laboratory tests, which were focused on heating of graphite, pure oxides of iron and hematite iron ore. W artykule omówiono możliwości zastosowania mikrofal do nagrzewania materiałów w przemyśle hutniczym. Pierwsza część opisuje podstawowe właściwości promieniowania mikrofalowego w porównaniu do tradycyjnych rodzajów ogrzewania. Druga część artykułu zawiera wyniki z badań laboratoryjnych, które koncentrowały się na ogrzewaniu grafitu, czystych tlenków żelaza i hematytu. Keywords: heating, microwave, electromagnetic radiation, iron oxides, graphite Słowa kluczowe: nagrzewanie, mikrofala, promieniowanie elektromagnetyczne, tlenek żelaza, grafit.1. Introduction Production of pig iron and steel demands huge amount of raw materials and energy. This process is also associated with formation of a significant quantity of solid, liquid wastes and gaseous polutants, especially nowadays much discussed [...]

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