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Mikroprocesorowy czujnik tlenku węgla i metanu

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Obecnie jednym z najpopularniejszych źródeł energii jest gaz ziemny. Stosowany jest bardzo często w mieszkaniach, w najbliższym otoczeniu ludzi - w łazienkach, kuchniach, kotłowniach. Instalacje gazowe i przewody wentylacyjne często są przestarzałe i niekontrolowane, a co za tym idzie - w wielu przypadkach uszkodzone i nieskuteczne. Istnieje więc zapotrzebowanie na urządzenia, które potrafił[...]

Zagadnienia EMC w mikroelektronicznych układach hybrydowych wykonanych na podłożach metalowych


  Pięćdziesięcioletnia mikroelektroniczna technologia hybrydowa, wpisująca się w początki trzeciej ery rozwoju elektroniki, przeżywa obecnie renesans, zwłaszcza w odniesieniu do efektywnego wypełniania "nisz technologicznych", charakteryzujących się bardzo zróżnicowanymi wymaganiami w obszarze właściwości funkcjonalnych mikroukładów elektronicznych, spełnianymi w efekcie dużej elastyczności projektowania i wytwarzania grubowarstwowych struktur hybrydowych. Coraz nowsze, bardziej zawansowane technologicznie urządzenia do produkcji układów hybrydowych, nowe rozwiązania technologiczne (pasty fotoczułe, polimerowe), nowe odmiany technologii pozwalają na realizację układów wielowarstwowych o dużym stopniu upakowania podzespołów na jednostkę powierzchni. Rozwój technologii montażu powierzchniowego (SMT), związany z wprowadzaniem elementów o coraz mniejszym rastrze, umożliwił uzyskanie dużych wskaźników scalenia w technologii hybrydowej [1]. Postęp w technologii materiałowej, nowe kompozycje past dielektrycznych pozwoliły na urzeczywistnienie realizacji struktur hybrydowych na podłożach metalowych. Materiały technologiczne oferowane miedzy innymi przez firmę DuPont, ESL czy Heraeus pozwalają na realizację tego typu struktur na podłożach ze stali nierdzewnej (austenitycznej, ferrytycznej), aluminium czy platynie. W większości aplikacji opracowane rozwiązania technologiczne pozwalają na realizację niskprofilowych elementów grzejnych (HOS - Heaters on Steel) hybrydowych struktur elektronicznych (COS Circuits on Steel, TFOS Thick Film on Steel) oraz sensorów w specjalnych wykonaniach odpornych na działanie czynników środowiskowych itp. Podstawą realizacji struktur hybrydowych na podłożach metalowych jest zapewnienie stosownej izolacji dielektrycznej dla przewodzących elementów układów elektrycznych i elektronicznych. Laminaty, polimery, czy podłoża ceramiczne to materiały dielektryczne, które pozwalają wykonywać/nanosić bezpośrednio na[...]

Analysis of electromagnetic couplingsin hybrid circuit made on austenitic metal substrate


  The fast progress in material technology, new compositions of dielectric inks allowed to realizations of hybrid structures on metal substrates. The technological materials from DuPont, ESL or Heraeus make possible to print different pastes on substrates from rustless steel (austenitic, ferritic), aluminium or platinum. The elaborated technological applications (in the most cases) allow to realization of heating elements (HOS - Heaters on Steel), electronic structures (COS - Circuits on Steel, TFOS - Thick Film on Steel) as well as sensors structures for special applications. There are a lot of dielectric inks especially dedicated for those applications. For example - 3500N for ferritic steels S430 and S444 from DuPont, 4916 for austenitic steel S304 and 4924 for ferritic steel S430 from ESL or SD1000 SD2000 for ferritic steel S430 and IP211 dedicated to sensor applications and steels S430 or S446 from Heraeus. This growing interest of the above-mentioned applications leads to necessity of research in EMC area. The good knowledge about mechanisms of disturbance propagation processes is the basis of good designed final product. Parasitic elements of paths’ system The application of rustless steel, aluminium or platinum as substrate material in microelectronic hybrid circuits leads to creation of typical microstrip structure for path-substrate system (Fig. 1) [1, 2]. 62 Elektronika 1/2012 In the above-mentioned configuration the nearness of each path in relation to ground (determined by thickness of the dielectric paste) is cause of shorting effect of electric field lines to the conducted structure of substrate. This effect leads to decrease of electrical flux value in neighboring paths - then the small values of parasitic capacitances are observed [2]. The three types of test circuits with different geometrical configuration were made for realization of experimental investigations (determination of per-unit-length para[...]

EMC Aspects in microelectronics structures made in LTCC technology


  The fast development of LTCC technology (Low Temeperature Cofired Ceramic) is observed in relation to realization of multilayered hybrid structures. It is applied for manufacturing of wide range of microelectronic circuits, especially MCM-C structures (Multi Chip Module on Ceramics) which are used in different areas of industry. The multilayered structures, sensors, microsystems, passive elements, microwave elements can be found in telecommunication, informatics, radioengineering, mechatronics, transport, etc. The possibility of creation of channels and cavities inside of LTCC module allows to realization of chemical microreactors, hydraulic systems in microscale (together with pumps and valves), fuel cells, flat plasma displays, sensors of physical quantities and systems applied in biotechnology and medicine [1, 2]. Parasitic elements of paths’ system The calculations of mutual capacitance CM and effective inductance Lz (for two parallel paths system with parametrically changed the mutual distance "s" and paths width "w") were made using elaborated PACAPIND program. They allowed to determine range of parameters changes of parasitic elements in typical LTCC structure for three basic configurations. For experimental investigations (determination of per-unitlength parameters) the test circuits were made in configuration of mutual parallel path systems (Fig. 1) on the basis of silver conductive paste HF612Ag and LTCC substrate 943PX from DuPont. The test circuits were made in three configurations: onelayered, two-layered with ground plane (microstrip configurations) and layered with the same thickness of subs[...]

Strength of electronic systems on normalised disturbance signals


  Normally operated electronic device is influenced by set of factors outlining its environment. The temperature, the humidity, the pressure, the environmental pollution, the mechanical exposure and the electromagnetic exposure, being a subject of this analysis, are the factors that may over time cause changes in element’s molecular structure and trigger specific damage mechanisms. By the present technology development the exact knowledge of those factors, their nature and the way, they influence on the device and their elements are becoming more and more indispensable. Degeneration process, which take place within the object during its use, lead to reduction of performance ability of the function ascribed. In theory and practice, the ability of carrying out fixed tasks by the object, is described with the probability of their fulfillment [1]. The extension of a group of reliable factors of structural components by quantities characterizing their strength on the defined types of electromagnetic disturbances would allow to shorten the design cycle and project verification significantly. Such an index, just like voltage, nominal current or dissipation power of the elements, would be the determinant while choosing elements in accordance with environmental class in which the designed device will work. It would let compare the same elements from different producers and during the final phase, the comparison of finished systems fulfilling the same function but differing in application of technical solutions. The measure of durability of elements, of which the electronic device is built, is the time over which the element maintains given properties within specified range and within specified operation conditions. The end of the element lifetime is when the element no longer meets the accepted durability criterion; then the operational element becomes damaged and unfit. The environmental factors may significantly modify the time[...]

Dyskretny model RC wymiany ciepła w wielowarstwowych mikroelektronicznych strukturach hybrydowych


  Dynamiczny rozwój przemysłu elektronicznego pociąga za sobą konieczność uwzględniania zjawisk termodynamicznych w procesie projektowania systemów mikroelektronicznych. Jest to spowodowane wzrostem gęstości upakowania, rozpraszanej mocy, szybkości działania. Powoduje to bardzo intensywny rozwój różnego typu metod obliczeniowych oraz badań eksperymentalnych struktur mikroelektronicznych (technologia LTCC - ang. Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic, MEMS - ang. Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems, μTAS - ang. Micro Total-Analysis Systems, itp.), w których uwzględniane są zjawiska cieplne. Wspomniane wyżej problemy, aktualne problemy stanowiły podstawę do podjęcia badań, mających na celu opracowanie modelu analogowego, umożliwiającego określenie mechanizmów przenoszenia ciepła oraz pola temperatury w wielowarstwowej strukturze hybrydowej przy dynamicznych pobudzeniach energetycznych, a także cieplnych warunków pracy w syntezie tego rodzaju struktury. Z punktu widzenia dynamiki współczesnego procesu projektowania mikroukładu największe efekty korekt, wynikających z przedmiotowej analizy, może zapewnić ich wprowadzenie w czasie trwania cyklu projektowego. Wymaga to szybkiego, utrzymanego w rozsądnych granicach dokładności, wstępnego określenia rozkładu temperatury w mikroukładzie. W tym celu konieczne jest także przeprowadzenie procesu identyfikacji właściwości termicznych materiałów wchodzących w skład struktury i ich zależności od temperatury, a także określenie warunków brzegowych i sposobów wymiany ciepła wewnątrz obiektu i miedzy nim a otoczeniem. Dla tego typu struktur szczególne znaczenie posiadają dynamiczne wymuszenia termiczne, które mogą być przyczyną stresów termicznych często powodujących niemożność spełniania przez układ swojej funkcji i/lub fizyczne defekty struktury. Zjawiska takie wykorzystywane są także do badań związanych z wyznaczaniem termicznych parametrów materiałowych, stresów termicznych, mechanizmów prze[...]

Deterministic Coefficient of Electronic System Strenght on Electromagnetic Disturbances


  Deterministyczny współczynnik wrażliwości układu elektronicznego na zaburzenia elektromagnetyczne.Normally operated electronic device is influenced by set of factors outlining its environment. The temperature, the humidity, the pressure, the environmental pollution, the mechanical exposure and the electromagnetic exposure, being a subject of this analysis, are the factors that may over time cause changes in element’s molecular structure and trigger specific damage mechanisms. By the present technology development the exact knowledge of those factors, their nature and the way, they influence on the device and their elements are becoming more and more indispensable. Degeneration process, which take place within the object during its use, lead to reduction of performance ability of the function ascribed. In theory and practice, the ability of carrying out fixed tasks by the object, is described with the probability of their fulfillment [4]. The extension of a group of reliable factors of structural components by quantities characterizing their strength on the defined types of electromagnetic disturbances would allow to shorten the design cycle and project verification significantly. Such an index, just like voltage, nominal current or dissipation power of the elements, would be the determinant while choosing elements in accordance with environmental class in which the designed device will work. It would let compare the same elements from different producers and during the final phase, the comparison of finished systems fulfilling the same function but differing in application of technical solutions. The measure of durability of elements, of which the electronic device is built, is the time over which the element maintains given properties within specified range and within specified operation conditions. The end of the element lifetime is when the element no longer meets the accepted durability criterion; then the operationa[...]

Per-unit-lenght parameters calculations for cable harnesses


  The mathematical analysis of electrical signal propagation communication interfaces requires a good knowledge about per-unitlength parameters of wires. It is especially important for analysis of circuits operated in high frequency range. The influence of p.u.l parameters on signal propagation in transmission lines describes the telegraph equation. For cable harnesses (with common coupled particular single wires) the p.u.l parameters have a form of R, L, C, G matrices [1-8]. P.U.L parameters calculations - theory The method of moments which belongs to the approximate methods allows the determination of distribution of electromagnetic fields (and their characteristic values) with much lower power consumption of calculations compared to the other methods. The analytical equations describing continuous electromagnetic field (in space and time domain) are transformed into a discrete system of algebraic equations. The quantities characterizing electromagnetic field in dielectric media can be determined from the Poisson equation described for the considered wire system: (1) The electric potential in any point P of homogenous dielectric media with permittivity εm (without wire insulation) considered in 2D (Fig.1a) can be determined from general solution of equation (1) with given conditions: (2) where sμ is a lateral surface of wire. With good conductivity of wires it can be assumed that the potential μ on the perimeter of ( ) [...]

Generation of higher current harmonics in electronic ballasts used in fluorescent lamps DOI:10.15199/13.2015.3.11


  The wide range of electric energy applications as well as dynamic development of electronics cause manufacturing more useful devices, which allow a lot of human actions to automate. It leads to fast growth of the number of electric and electronic equipment produced. The sizeable group of electric receivers are lighting sources used in illumination of open areas as well as closed buildings (commercial objects, offices, factories and housing estates). The most popular lighting receivers are discharge lamps whose popularity is a result of much better luminous and electric parameters in relation to traditional light bulb. The main disadvantages of such devices are the necessity of correct utilization of used discharge lamps and the fact that they require adequate electronic ballasts for proper operation. Currently, they are produced as full electronic circuits, which consist of supply module and converter supplying the discharge lamp. Usage of the above-mentioned electronic systems as well as the fact that current flows in gas trigger that the discharge lighting sources are nonlinear receivers. As it is well-known, the nonlinear receiver consumes the non-sinusoidal current from supply, what is a cause of supply voltage distortion. A lot of information about unfavorable influence of nonlinear receivers on supply network can be found in literature [1-4]. It is a very important problem which also concerns receivers with small nominal power (for instance - household computer systems). This paper is devoted to generation of higher current harmonics by electroni[...]

Conditions of RF energy harvesting in UHF RFID systems DOI:10.15199/13.2015.3.14


  Electromagnetic harvesting as a recent field of engineers' interest has introduced the new function of antenna - one of the most significant components of each wireless communication system. It allows to select the signals (dedicated to system) out of electromagnetic space and, in the case of previously mentioned RF harvesting, also to accumulate energy. The parameters that received signal will possess, the amount of energy possible to accumulate from space depend on radio communication channel properties, specifically from parameters of the antennas, physical properties of environment where propagation occurs, parameters of electronic circuits used in converting, transmitting and receiving signals [1, 2]. The aspect of accumulating energy from RFID system, operating in UHF frequency band has become an inspiration to launch the research in the area of energy distribution analysis in RFID reader field. Investigation regarded the verification of propagation models in harvesting energy from RFID systems, operating in actual conditions. The major point of conducted research was to determine electric field strength distribution and power density generated by chosen RFID antennas, operating in UHF frequency band as well as to specify which factors outline this process. Electromagnetic field distribution analysis The literature analysis concerning RFID antenna systems illustrated that to determine the parameters of electromagnetic fields generated in systems, in simplified form, the most frequently used dependencies are ones obtaining for free space with isotropic antenna which radiates uniformly in each direction [1, 2, 3]. When it comes to antenna radiating PEIRP power isotropically, the value of power density in d-distant point from the source of the signal is described by dependency: (1) If this point is located in far field of antenna, the rms value of electric field strength E is indicated by relation: (2) 4 d 2 S P[...]

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