Wyniki 1-10 spośród 13 dla zapytania: authorDesc:"MARIUSZ WĘGLARSKI"

Dynamiczna metoda wyznaczania właściwości cieplnych materiałów w mikroelektronicznych strukturach hybrydowych


  Dążenie do miniaturyzacji i jednocześnie potrzeba zapewnienia maksymalnej funkcjonalności przyrządów elektronicznych, przyczynia się do ogromnego wzrostu zainteresowania strukturami hybrydowymi, w których poszczególne elementy realizowane są na wspólnym podłożu, przy zastosowaniu różnych technologii [1]. Powszechnie wykorzystywana dotychczas możliwość dołączania elementów dyskretnych: czynnych (wykonanych w technologii planarnej i zamkniętych w obudowie) lub biernych, do układów grubowarstwowych, jest już niewystarczająca do zrealizowania wszystkich założeń funkcjonalnych określonej aplikacji. Rozwój technik SMT (Surface Mount Technology) w kierunku zwiększania gęstości wyprowadzeń, pociąga za sobą konieczność wytwarzania coraz to bardziej zaawansowanych struktur podłożowych, w których zawarte są nie tylko systemy ścieżek łączących, lecz również część elementów pasywnych oraz mechanizmy ułatwiające odprowadzanie ciepła. Dodatkowo, wzrost częstotliwości pracy mikroukładów wymusza potrzebę wykonywania coraz to dokładniejszych i mniejszych połączeń pomiędzy poszczególnymi elementami, co z kolei wymaga zastosowania droższej technologii cienkowarstwowej. Dzięki intensywnemu rozwojowi struktur LTCC (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic) pojawiło się pośrednie rozwiązanie pod względem uwarunkowań ekonomicznych i technologicznych. Zastosowanie kolejnych warstw podłoża jako izolatora, ułatwia komponowanie struktur 3D, o ogromnym zagęszczeniu połączeń i dodatkowych elementów biernych, przy zachowaniu stosunkowo nieskomplikowanych procesów wytwarzania mikroukładu [3]. Dalsza miniaturyzacja jest możliwa poprzez wprowadzenie materiałów fotoczułych, pozwalających na zastąpienie typowego dla technologii grubowarstwowej procesu sitodruku bardziej precyzyjnym procesem naświetlania. Również i w tym przypadku, w krytycznych punktach istnieje możliwość zastosowania droższej, lecz o wiele dokładniejszej technologii cienkowarstwowej. Wprawdzie popr[...]

Synthesis of Read/Write Device Antenna for HF Proximity Range RFID Systems with Inductive Coupling

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The effective synthesis process of a complete RF output circuit in a proximity range single RFID system with inductive coupling has been presented in the paper. The synthesis also incorporates problems connected with designing read/write devices constructed on the basis of integrated circuits from different manufacturers. The presented method can be applied to any process of automatic identification requiring the proximity range RFID system operating at the frequency of 13.56 MHz and using any communication protocol. Streszczenie. W artykule zaprezentowano efektywny proces syntezy kompletnego obwodu wyjściowego RF, w którym uwzględniono jego poprawne działanie w systemach identyfikacji pojedynczej, w czytnikach/programatorach skonstruowanych na układach IC różnych producentów. Zaprezentowana metoda może zostać zastosowana dla dowolnego procesu automatycznej identyfikacji obiektów, gdzie wymagana jest aplikacja systemu RFID bliskiego zasięgu, działającego z częstotliwością 13,56 MHz i wykorzystującego różne protokoły komunikacyjne. (Synteza anteny czytnika/programatora indukcyjnie sprzężonego systemu RFID bliskiego zasięgu funkcjonującego w paśmie HF). Keywords: RFID, HF band, antenna, Read/Write Device Słowa kluczowe: RFID, pasmo HF, antena, czytnik/programator Introduction Antennas of Read/Write Devices (RWD) are the main executive components of Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) systems [1]. The knowledge of methods for their proper synthesis not only makes possible to design the proper output circuit but also enables to determine the Interrogation Zone (IZ) which is the primary parameter of RFID system applications [2]. This knowledge allows a smooth implementation of automatic identification processes in various areas of socio-economic activity [1, 3- 7]. Two operating ranges are defined with regard to the established characteristic of electromagnetic field in RFID systems. The near field occurring in proximity range RFID sys[...]

The use of RFID Transponders Equipped with Built-in Sensors in Navigation Systems

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The authors’ research in the subject of sensors integration with IC of RFID transponder has been presented in this paper. A deployment of some number of such equipped identifiers in a particular region gives the opportunity to determine precisely the parameter values describing ambient conditions. Selected problems connected with memory organization of the transponders and also with an implementation in autonomous navigation systems of static and mobile objects inside of the defined space have been analysed in details. Streszczenie. W artykule autorzy zaprezentowali badania związane z możliwością integracji czujników z układem scalonym identyfikatora RFID. Rozmieszczenie pewnej liczby tak wyposażonych identyfikatorów na określonym obszarze daje możliwość precyzyjnego wyznaczenia wartości parametrów opisujących warunki środowiskowe. Szczegółowo zostały przedstawione wybrane problemy związane z organizacją pamięci takiego identyfikatora jak również z jego wykorzystaniem w autonomicznych systemach nawigacji statycznych lub mobilnych obiektów wewnątrz określonego obszaru. (Wykorzystanie identyfikatorów RFID z wbudowanymi czujnikami w systemach nawigacji). Keywords: RFID, transponders, intelligent sensors, autonomous localization. Słowa kluczowe: RFID, identyfikatory elektroniczne, czujniki inteligentne, lokalizacja autonomiczna. Introduction The navigation of mobile object is connected with such issues as determination of actual localization and position of possible static or moving obstacles, estimation of motion path and evaluation the easiest efficient routes to the selected destination. In most cases these tasks are provided thanks to implementation of several different systems cooperating and supporting each other [1]. Each system is usually responsible only for a one particular task. For example, a system GPS is used for current object localization, laser scanner - for obstacle detection, analysis of camera images - for recogn[...]

RFID technique in remote control system


  RFID transponder advantages in remote control system RFID technique implementations in remote control systems give new opportunities in creating building automation or navigation systems that have potential to be used directly in consumer application [1-5]. In these proposals, RFID transponders can be implemented in non-typical way, as a remote trigger of an action [2, 5]. The two approaches to utilizing transponder intrinsic properties are possible in designing such a system. The first one is based on the typical object identification feature that takes place in a stationary interrogation zone (IZ) of RFID system (e.g. access control systems to a places or resources) [6, 7, 8]. The second approach assumes object identifications in several IZs [3, 4, 9]. It means that the recognized objects have fixed locations whereas the RWD (read/write device) dynamically changes position (the IZ moves in space). Of course, there is a possibility of combining both methods [2]. Authors propose a non-conventional use of the RFID system in smart building automation technology. The solution releases user from necessity to manually trigger actions in control process[...]

Autonomous sensor with RFID interface DOI:10.15199/13.2015.3.4


  The use of radio frequency identification (RFID) technique, especially the sensor transponders, gives a new quality to broad implementation of automatic identification and intelligent wireless senor networks. A deployment of a number of autonomous transponders (both: fixed with labelled goods as well as deployed in a supervised environment) in a particular region gives the opportunity to determine precisely the values of parameters describing environmental conditions [1]. The market potentials for such a solution are tremendous [2, 3]. Nevertheless, some technical problems have to be overcome to achieve overall usefulness of the measuring networks [4]. The autonomous sensor with RFID interface (called also RFID sensor or sensor transponder) is in fact a semi-passive transponder. Additionally, in spite of being supplied from a built-in extra power source (usually battery or rechargeable cell), it harvests energy from the electromagnetic field generated by the antenna of read/write device (RWD) [3]. In all kinds of transponders, the communication process can be activated only when they are in the interrogation zone (IZ) [4, 5]. The extra power source supplies only additional functional blocks (e.g. analog-to-digital converter, extended memory of user data, serial data transmission driver, physical quantities transducers, other integrated circuits) that are not directly related to the automatic identification process (process of conveying the unique identification UID code and other data permitted by transmission protocols). Utilizing these facilities and a communication protocol standard, it is possible to use the RFID sensor as a wireless node of measuring network (wireless sensor network WSN) [2]. The RFID sensor node equipped with a serial data transmission driver (usually I2C or SPI standard - inter-integrated circuit and serial peripheral interface respectively) or an analog-to-digital converter can measure environmental [...]

Synthesis of omnidirectional read/write device antenna for UHF RFID system DOI:10.15199/13.2015.3.5


  Complex hardware-software radio frequency identification (RFID) systems are commonly utilized in many different areas of economy and everyday life [1-3]. Their frequent use results from the increasing demands for data security or information reliability that are transferred together with goods, between different places in the age of globalization. Furthermore, in the modern world, there is a trend towards designing more sophisticated electronic devices that have the ability to personalize themselves to a given automated process. A typical RFID system consists of a read/write device (RWD), its antenna and at least one transponder that is intended for marking an object [4]. Communication in this system can be provided with one or simultaneously with multiple transponders (single or anti-collision system respectively) that can also be found in static or dynamic state (moving objects) [5]. The electromagnetic field is the source of energy for transponders and a medium for data transmission. These factors significantly affect the interrogation zone (IZ) of the RFID system. The IZ determines the efficiency of a given automated process [6] and it is shaped by the RWD antenna. The microstrip antenna with omnidirectional radiation pattern is presented in this paper. The proposed solution is resistant to objects proximity that ca[...]

Flexible antenna design for semi-passive HF RFID transponder in ink-jet technology DOI:10.15199/48.2015.04.01

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The synthesis process of flexible antenna dedicated to semi-passive transponders of HF RFID system with inductive coupling is presented in the paper. The problem of antenna matching to a chip is considered in details. The emphasis is put on the possibility of manufacturing the antenna in the ink-jet technology. The impact of technology on antenna parameters is also discussed as it is important for transponder operation in a target application. The validation study of the synthesis method and samples behaviour in inhomogeneous magnetic field has been carried out. Streszczenie. W artykule omówiono proces syntezy elastycznej anteny dedykowanej do pracy w półpasywnych, indukcyjnie sprzężonych systemach RFID pasma HF. Szczegółowej analizie poddano problem dopasowania anteny i chipu. Przeanalizowano także możliwość wykonania zaprojektowanej anteny w procesie druku strumieniowego, zwracając szczególną uwagę na wpływ parametrów technologicznych na działanie identyfikatora w docelowej aplikacji systemu RFID. W artykule omówiono również proces syntezy układów testowych oraz ich pracę w niejednorodnym polu magnetycznym. (Projekt elastycznej anteny półpasywnego identyfikatora RFID pasma HF realizowanej w procesie druku strumieniowego). Keywords: flexible antenna, ink-jet technology, RFID system, HF semi-passive transponder. Słowa kluczowe: antena elastyczna, technologia druku strumieniowego, system RFID, półpasywny identyfikator HF. Introduction The Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technique is still developed for improving automated processes in industry, logistics, science, medicine and many other fields of people’s activities [1-4]. The automated identification is based on electronic transponders that are attached to marked objects. The typical passive RFID transponder consists of an antenna and a chip [5]. Besides it, there is a semi-passive construction (called active transponder) that has also an extra energy source built-in (e.g.[...]

Thermal investigations of microelectronics structures

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The intensive development of modern electronics, especially the significant extension of miniaturization is causing the bigger numbers of microcircuits operate in hard conditions such as pulse regime or large heat dissipation. The emitted heat in such conditions (as a result of current flow) has not only substantial value of amplitude (especially in power system), but it is also characterize[...]

Field characteristic of magnetic sensors on the split hall structures


  Galvanomagnetic sensors are widely used for magnetic field measurement due to their capability to work in a wide range of magnetic flux density (from 10-6 T to several tens of Tesla) and temperature (from 1 K to 400 K), their small sizes (several millimeters) and low cost (in large-scale production) [1, 2]. Hall sensors are a kind of galvanomagnetic sensors. A typical Hall sensor is a rectangular semiconductor slab with two pairs of electrodes: one pair is used for energizing the slab whilst the other is intended for Hall voltage measurement (these two electrodes are referenced to as potential electrodes, they are placed symmetrically along the current-flow line) [3, 4]. One can distinguish two typical variants of probes of Hall sensors - with normal (transverse) and with axial position of a sensor in a probe. Such probes are intended for measuring the only magnetic-field vector’s projection which is normal to the probe’s work surface. This fact causes two problems. The first problem is restricted spatial resolution; the second one is impossibility of simultaneous measurement of three magnetic-field vector’s projections (BX, BY, BZ) in a certain point of space. As shown in Fig. 1a, there no difficulties concerned to measurement of the magnetic-field vector’s projection normal to a certain surface. In order to measure this projection sensor is to be placed immediately on this surface. The distance d between the surface being measured and the effective layer (active region) can be rather short and depends on the width of the effective layer’s substrate. Thinning the substrate appropriately, one can achieve the distance d nearly equal to 0.2…0.3 mm. However if the magnetic-field vector’s projections parallel to the surface are to be measured then the sensor’s structure is to be set vertically (Fig. 1b). This causes the minimal possible distance d between the sensor’s active reg[...]

Impedance matching between antenna and chip in RFID transponder of UHF Band


  Radiative coupling radio frequency identification (RFID) systems of the UHF band (860 to 960 MHz) [1] work in the range of far field where emitted wave (of frequency f0) is not only a data carrier but first of all an energy source (of power density S). The electromagnetic field is generated by a read/write device (RWD). The RWD antenna together with transponder antennas comprise a radio communication arrangement which has to be wave and impedance matched. It should be emphasised that the classical impedance matching of a transmitter and receiver is established only between the RWD output and connected antenna (50 Ω). If a transponder appears in the interrogation zone (IZ), it can be supplied with energy and the data can be exchanged (Fig. 1a) but the backscattering modulation is used to send answers back to the RWD. In the transponder backscattering response the emitted wave is only partially reflected towards the RWD because of switching load impedance of the internal chip - this process is extremely power-saving but also conveyed energy has limited amount. The minimal power PTmin (chip sensitivity) is required for activating communication process (Fig. 1b). Appropriate communication mechanisms are defined by ISO protocols, e.g. ISO/IEC 18000-6 (EPC Class 1 Gen 2), 18000-4 for UHF band. They determine the interrogation zone which is a basic application parameter of RFID systems. The IZ is a space zone around the RWD antenna which boundaries are dependent first of all on the transponder antenna construction and impedance matching to the chip input and can be estimated by using e.g. Monte Carlo method [2]. So, the specific parameters of the chip and target application have to be[...]

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