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Sensor for the measurement of combustion heat


  Fluid fuels are widely used for motor powering, heating and cooking. Possibility of verification the quality of fuels is of paramount importance because fuel quality directly influences on consumption, and this way on customer charges. On the other hand, evaluation the quality of fuels, especially fuel heat energy, is a long time consuming process, which can be completed at laboratory site with a specific equipment. Proposed sensor can be a foundation for construction of simple portable instrument, which can be considered as an alternative to the expensive and bulky bomb calorimeter. Method of measurement The principle of measurement is explained in Fig. 1. A small volume stable flame is maintained between two ceramic plates, which temperature is being controlled by two thin film platinum resistors deposited on the both ceramic plates. These resistors serve as heaters and temperature sensors. The resistors are connected to electronic circuitry, which maintains a constant temperature of the both ceramic plates regardless of external or internal conditions. It is also assumed that the both ceramic plates display sufficiently high thermal conductivity that the same single value of temperature can be considered for each small portion of both ceramic plates. The temperature of both ceramic plates is maintained at constant temperature level above 800°C. High temperature of combustion zone is essential for performance, because the flame is not quenched in the vicinity of hot ceramic plates and thus a stable burning process can be maintained very close to the ceramic plates, so, the heat exchange factor can be improved. As the additional amount of fuel enters the combustion zone, and is being burned additional amount of heat is produced. That heat flux mostly in form of infrared radiation is absorbed by the ceramic plates. In response, in order to maintain the constant temperature of ceramic plates, the control circuit decreases t[...]

Peltier modules array on common alumina substrate for the blind - thermal and electrical tests

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Blind people can read characters by touching convex paper or by using Braille charts based on piezoelectric crystals. The main disadvantage of a piezoelectric chart is a limitation to two lines of a text because of the necessary crystal length. This results in impossibility of displaying graphics. Recently there were news about the special device for blind people that can transfer informatio[...]

Grubowarstwowy katalityczny detektor jonizacyjny do mikroanalizatorów

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Opisano próbę realizacji w technologii warstw grubych katalitycznego reaktora umożliwiającego spalanie węglowodorów. Katalityczne detektory mają wiele zalet w porównaniu z detektorami płomieniowymi. Najważniejsze z nich to: - możliwość realizacji miniaturowych reaktorów, ponieważ [...]

Anode Supported Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) – novel design


  Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are highly efficient energy conversion devices that transform chemical energy to electrical energy through the electrochemical reactions. SOFC consists of two ceramic electrodes (anode and cathode) separated by a dense ceramic electrolyte and it operates at high temperature in the range from 800°C to 1000°C. Oxygen ions formed at the cathode migrate through the ion - conducting electrolyte to the anode/ electrolyte interface where they react with fuel, producing water and releasing electrons that flow through an external circuit to the cathode/electrolyte interface [1-3]. Microstructure of the cathode, anode and electrolyte is important for the proper fuel cell operation. The electrolyte should be dense, gas-tight and ion conducting. The electrodes should be transparent for gases and have good electrical conductivity [4-6]. In a typical planar SOFC design, the cell components are configured as thin, flat plates and metallic or ceramic interconnects serve as gas flow channels and provide the electrical connection between the cells in a stack of cells. The article presents a novel design of the anode-supported high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) which differs from the typical planar SOFC design by the multifunctional anode construction. The anode consists of the anode base with embedded fuel distribution channels, manifolds and waste product collectors, and two operating anodes deposited on the both sides of the base. The embedded channels are connected with the outside via inlet for fuel and outlet for the waste products. The operating anodes are permanently bonded with the anode base by sintering. The anode base supports two cells, serves as a common current collector and provides fuel distribution. The anode base and operating anodes are made of commercially available nickel oxide and yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ) green tapes and further components of the cell - electrolyte and [...]

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