### Detecting QRS complex and classifying endogenous rhythms in pacemaker ECG signals

Agnieszka DURAJ Andrzej KRAWCZYK
This article presents the problem of detection and classification of QRS complexes with electrocardiography signals coming from patients
with implanted cardiac pacemaker. Special attention was focused on the use of wavelet - neural networks in above mentioned subject matter of
investigation. Efficiency of detection of QRS complex was examined by algorithms working in time domain.
During the inv
[...]

### INNE PUBLIKACJE W TYM ZESZYCIE

**A constraint propagation algorithm for determining the stability margin of linear parameter circuits and systems**
The paper addresses the stability margin assessment for linear systems under interval parameter uncertainties. The original stability
problem is initially transformed into an equivalent problem of estimating the eigenvalues ranges of matrices whose elements are non-linear functions
of independent interval parameters. A new algorithm for finding the exact value of stability margin (within error b

więcej »
**A multiobjective approach to the shape design of HTSC magnetic bearings**
The shape design of the excitation system of a high-temperature-superconductor (HTSC) magnetic bearing is revisited in terms of
multiobjective design. It is proven how the concept of non-dominated solution, helps the designer to represent the feasible region in the objective
space and identify its boundary. At the end of the proposed design procedure, a set of optimal geometries of the device -

więcej »
**A posteriori error estimators in finite element method for time and frequency domain**
The work presents discretization error estimators implemented in adaptive algorithm designed for refinement of 2-D and 3-D meshes used
for frequency and transient analysis of electromagnetic fields. Magnetic flux density and information from sensitivity analysis are used as an error
indicator. The adaptive algorithm was applied on different numerical examples, the results of the analysis show th

więcej »
**Adjoint models in the time domain sensitivity analysis utilizing FEM for the identification of material conductivity distribution**
The paper deals with numerical aspects of the sensitivity analysis in time domain. The dependence of adjoint model excitation from the
way of the magnetic field measurement is discussed. The structure of adjoint model bases on a version of Tellegen's theorem for electromagnetic
field theory. Proposed method finds application in inverse tasks of conductive material testing using eddy-currents.
S

więcej »
**Analysis of magnetic field inside of vessel during degaussing process**
The magnetic field inside the vessel during the degaussing process may be harmful to electronic devices. The degaussing process is
crucial for the minimization of the permanent magnetization of the vessel. The results of the analysis of the magnetic field inside the vessel during
the degaussing process are presented in this paper. The analysis of the magnetic field was performed in OPERA 3D.
St

więcej »
**Analysis of signal competition in asynchronous ultra high-speed digital circuits**
In this paper, we propose an approach for detection of signal competition within asynchronous ultra high-speed digital circuits using a
pulse data coding. The circuits considered are modeled by the corresponding directed graph with each asynchronous gate presented by a vertex
and each signal line - by an edge. The approach is based on finding all different path pairs between every pair of vertic

więcej »
**Application of minimization methods in modeling of converter drives**
Along with development of power electronics, drives are growing in structural and operational complexity. For research of dynamical
efficiency of drives and their control accuracy, mathematical modeling methods are applied. In order to attain credible modeling results, software
allowing swift and precise dynamical process simulation should be created. Owing to scarceness of state-structural meth

więcej »
**Classification method for linear model of alternator **
The paper presents an attempt to implement the classification method for linear diagnostic model of alternator. Method basis on the signal
feature extractions, with the use of frequency methods, with selection of the variables basis on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and linear
discrimination analysis (LDA). The consideration has been carried out on the grounds of the faults of a bridge-recti

więcej »
**Comparison of selected weld defects extraction methods**
Following paper describes three different methods used for detection of welds defects. Those are Artificial Neural Networks, Fuzzy Logic
and background removing. They operate on digital radiographs. Detection methods described here are differentiated by the time consumption and
results achieved.
Streszczenie. Artykuł prezentuje trzy różne metody stosowane w procesie detekcji wad w spawach wykor

więcej »
**Comparison of the PMSM drives by means of generalized express method and power density criterion**
The paper is devoted to a time effective comparison of the different radial and axial PMSM configurations with the aim of revealing the
more progressive and approved approach to optimal design of high performance motor drives. A new generalized express method, based on the
geometrical sizes and power density relationship is described and applied for the comparison of the PMSM. Derived a simple a

więcej »
**Computer controlled eddy current system for evaluation of low-conductivity materials**
An eddy current system for testing low-conductivity materials is described in this paper. The system consists of differential transducer and
computer controlled measuring unit. Because of weak signals a new design of transducer with higher immunity to external fields and noises was
proposed.
Streszczenie. W artykule przedstawiony został wiroprądowy system do testowania materiałów słabo-przewodz

więcej »
**Computer vision in parallel computing**
Computer vision is known to be a CPU power consuming task. Real-time video capturing, filtering and converting take so much time that
creating a substantial artificial intelligence algorithm seems to be unrealisable. In this article author considers using a cluster in a computer vision
project, advantages and disadvantages of this solution. He explains some ideas about minimization of amount of

więcej »
**Concept of mapped Infinite Elements incorporated into Boundary Element Method**
Incorporation of Infinite Elements into Boundary Element Method (BEM) requires to introduce special mapping functions or combination of
standard shape function and decay functions for infinite region. The concept of mapped infinite elements usage and their implication for calculation
steps in BEM will be presented. Results will be illustrated by two-dimensional example. It is to clarify the appl

więcej »
**Configurations of slotless permanent magnet motors with counter-rotating rotors for ship propulsion drives**
This paper describes configurations of permanent magnet motors with counter-rotating rotors. Innovative applications of maritime object’s
drives constructions with slotless disc and cylindrical (dual-rotor) counter-rotating electrical machines based on permanent magnets were proposed.
For these kinds of motors, the ship propulsion drive is a very interesting application, especially for con

więcej »
**Control of active serial compensation system with application of Kalman filters**
The aim of serial compensation is improving the voltage flow in a given network node. Such units are both to protect the whole of the
network against the negative influence of non-linear receivers and to protect the receivers against distortions coming from the network. This paper
shows the methods using the techniques of adaptive digital filters i.e. Kalman's filtration algorithms. Simula

więcej »
**Conversion of Hammerstein models in electrical systems**
A method of reduction and decomposition of complex models of nonlinear systems into simple form has been proposed in this article.
Properties of the Wiener and Hammerstein models have been used in described algorithms. This algorithm can be used for simplification and
significant reduction of the time of symbolic operations made by known calculation packages, e.g.: Mathematica and Matlab.
Stres

więcej »
**Coreless axial flux PM machine with two external rotors **
The paper presents construction and principles of operation of coreless axial flux PM machine. In this construction new solution of stator
windings- mounting was used, that allowed to exploit active parts of machine more efficiently. There was also presented three dimensional model of
the machine and its parameters and characteristics obtained due to simulation. Results of this simulation

więcej »
**Coupled field in induction heating system **
The aim of the work is precise coupled field analysis (electromagnetic-temperature) by finite element method of an induction heating
system and investigation of the possibilities for creating adequate field models at chosen control points. The problem was solved as nonlinear,
transient, axisymmetrical coupled electromagnetic and temperature field. The obtained numerical results have been compare

więcej »
**Design aspects of synchronous machine drives for hybrid vehicles**
The transmission topology of hybrid electric vehicles, the maximum speed and the desired traction force predefine the number of electric
machines and their requirements. Synchronous machines are widely used within drive trains. The application of those with embedded magnets
offers a variety of design possibilities and optimisation. A comparison of magnet arrangements and calculation techniques a

więcej »
**Designing of ultra high-speed asynchronous digital electronics with higher complexity**
In this paper, we investigate the application of the asynchronous logic approach for the realization of ultra high-speed digital electronics
having higher complexity. We evaluate the possible physical, technological, and schematical origins of restrictions limiting such an application, and
propose solutions for their overcoming. Although our considerations are based on the Rapid Single-Flux Quan

więcej »
**Diabetic supervision system**
Following article treat about creation of remote supervision system for diabetic. Main purpose of this system is to help to maintain the
proper insulin level. Remote supervision will be used to achieve regular medical control without hospital visiting. System will be prepared for
immediate implementation.
Streszczenie. Prezentowany artykuł opisuje tworzenie systemu zdalnego nadzoru nad chorymi

więcej »
**Disc-type permanent magnet electrical machines**
Various approaches to combined magnetic system designs with permanent magnet segments and ferromagnetic field concentrators have
been proposed and analyzed. It has been shown, that the application of combined magnetic systems allows increasing both the magnetic, and electrical
loads of electrical machines. This is the basis for development of unconventional electrical machines with increased pow

więcej »
**Electrical power forecasting for small energetic railway region using SVM**
The paper presents the Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach to the short term (24 hours ahead) load forecasting for small energetic
region serving the railway system. The main problem in such forecasting is large diversity of load demand, changing from hour to hour. The
proposed solution applies 24 SVM networks responsible for prediction of the load demand for each hour of the day. The results

więcej »
**Evaluation of the accuracy of hysteresis models by the use of relative residual analysis**
Quantitative evaluation of the quality of hysteresis models is expressed by the relative residual inaccuracy of computed hysteresis loops.
The same criterion is used for the optimization of model parameters. For typical hysteresis loops the analysis may be limited to five characteristic
points along the upper branches of successive symmetrical loops.
Streszczenie. Ocena ilościowa jakości modelu

więcej »
**Finite Difference Time Domain Method for high resolution modeling of low frequency electric induction in humans**
The paper deals with the implementation of low frequency finite difference time domain method (FDTD) algorithm in the investigation of
induced electric field in the human body model with digitally implanted cardiac pacemaker. In order to investigate if the basic restrictions could be
exceeded according to international standards, the induced electric fields at both the input port of cardiac pace

więcej »
**Fluxgate sensor based on a special ring core made of nanocrystalline metal ribbons**
In the paper the design and results of tests carried out on a fluxgate-based compensating sensor of magnetic field intensity built around a
ring core made of Finemet type ribbon are presented. The core is featured by radially and regularly arranged holes. Such a design makes it possible
to magnetize portions of the core by coiling magnetizing windings and creating a virtual gap.
Streszczenie. W

więcej »
**Graphical model editing for 3D electromagnetic devices**
The paper presents an application designed for rendering and editing discrete models for PROFI System. There are shortly described the
principles of modelling in the mentioned software system, as well as the requirements for creating a model representation. The authors proposed the
interface for the mentioned application that will combine different approaches to model edition. This paper is focu

więcej »
**ICA method and RBF neural network for prediction improvement**
In this paper we present a novel method for integration the prediction results by finding common latent components via independent
component analysis. The latent components can have constructive or destructive influence on particular prediction results. After the elimination of
the deconstructive signals we rebuilt the improved predictions using RBF neural networks. We check the method validity

więcej »
**Image construction problems in ultrasound tomography**
An application of ultrasonic tomography for the velocity profile image construction of gas flowing in circular pipe is discussed in this paper.
Usually ultrasonic flowmeters are measuring the average velocity in the axial direction. Authors have extended the idea of measurement of an
average speed flow to the idea of measuring a speed profile in a cross section of the pipe. This idea directly le

więcej »
**Impedance tomography data acquisition system for brick walls humidity level evaluation**
The functional structure of the impedance tomography data acquisition system for measuring distribution of moisture in brick's walls is
presented. The measuring system is equipped with current and voltage electrodes of a special design adapted for different construction materials,
with an automatic switch of measuring channels and with an analog-to-digital converter. The image is obtained

więcej »
**Influence of circuit breaker operation upon transformer's residual flux and inrush current**
The paper presents a model and computation results of current and magnetic flux for a system containing a three-phase transformer and
a circuit breaker. In order to consider arc's influence on simulated phenomena, a circuital model of breaker with arc was created. Arc's model was
built basing on its static and simplified dynamic voltage-current characteristics. The simulation results show

więcej »
**Innovative magnetic systems of electrical machines**
Results of research on magnetic systems of electrical machines with outer, inner and double rotor are presented. The approaches to
combined magnetic system design with changing magnetization vectors of permanent magnets have been proposed. Magnetic systems allow
realizing the sinusoidal or trapezoidal waveform of the magnetic field distribution in the air gap of cylindrical type electrical machi

więcej »
**Interactive framework for modeling and analysis **
In this paper the interactive simulator will be presented. The main emphasis is put on methods of simulation implemented into this
simulator platform. Three kinds of simulation methods will be described. The first method is discrete simulation in real time or virtual time, the second
is simulation controlled by events and the last is single-step and multi-step method.
Streszczenie. W artykule t

więcej »
**Investigation of the temperature influences on capacitive sensor materials**
The temperature influence on dielectric materials for capacitive proximity sensors is investigated. The thermal sensor characteristic
depends on different effects that were separated by means of FEM field simulations and measurements. Permittivity and thermal expansion
coefficient and its interaction are important effects for the thermal sensor behaviour. The results show their interaction and g

więcej »
**Level Set method and material derivative concept in optimal shape design**
The optimal shape design of capacitor using level set method and material derivative technique was presented in the paper. The inverse
problem solution provides the position of the capacitor plate, which was optimized to achieve required potential distribution. In this case the efficiency
of both methods was compared.
Streszczenie. W pracy przedstawiono metodę optymalnego projektowania kształtu

więcej »
**Longitudinal space charge impedance in linac structures**
The longitudinal phase space is a design criterion of linear accelerators (linacs) and linac based light sources. Collective phenomena in
linear accelerators are effects caused by a large number of particles inside the beam. The self fields of the bunch act on the particles in the beam
and change their distribution. These fields are characterized by longitudinal space charge impedance.
Streszcz

więcej »
**Magnetoelastic methods principle and practical applications**
The hysteresis loop is the basic characteristic of a ferromagnetic material. Further magnetic properties, such as the total and incremental
permeability in working point, can be deduced from the hysteresis loop. Some applications of magnetoelastic method will be presented too.
Streszczenie. Pętla histerezy jest podstawową charakterystyką materiału ferromagnetycznego. Pozostałe własności, takie j

więcej »
**Mathematical polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell model**
A non-isothermal model of a low temperature polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell is presented. The model is based on conservation
equations coupled along with physical, electrochemical and empirical expressions. The model focuses on the implemented electrical subsystem. The
simulation results are compared with experimental life test investigations. The model can so be used for parametric studi

więcej »
**Minimization of torque pulsation in slotted PM machines with magnetic wedges**
The paper presents chosen results of magnetic circuit in electrical machines with permanent magnets simulating research. In this circuit
the magnetic wedges which close slots with windings have been provided. In analyzed structure of magnetic circuit first wedge's magnetic
permeability have been changed and then electromagnetic and cogging torque value have been examined. Because of that a

więcej »
**Modeling and transient analysis of the linear induction motors by detailed structural schemes**
The paper reports a new method of transient analysis of Linear Induction Motors (LIM) that is based on detailed electrical and magnetic
equivalent circuits. To minimize computation time detailed structural schemes (DSS) are introduced in the method. These schemes reflect physical
processes of sequential conversions of electrical and magnetic energy into mechanical one at the output of the LIM. A

więcej »
**Modified technique of FFT-based numerical inversion of Laplace transforms with applications**
The paper presents a modified technique of numerical inversion of Laplace transforms based on FFT and quotient-difference algorithms
and its Matlab implementation. The method enables to process general transforms of more complex variables and can therefore serve as a basis for
inversion of multidimensional Laplace transforms. An application of the method is illustrated by getting matrix exponent

więcej »
**Multi-path method by using shear horizontal wave for defect size detection**
A new method to determine the defect size by the estimation of the multi-path signals was proposed. In this method, two parameters were
determined from the amplitude variations of the received waves through the multi-path. As a result, the real defect depths of 3 mm and 5 mm were
evaluated as 3.2 mm and 4.6 mm from dy/dx of the fitting lines by least-squares method. Both results were achieved wi

więcej »
**New finite element based optimal current control of New finite element based optimal current control of**
The description of the properties of converter fed induction machines as a function of rotor frequency instead of slip is utmost preferable, if
the motor is used in speed variable drive systems. By this scheme all data can be described independently from the actual rotor speed or feeding
frequency of the converter. Based on numerical field calculations current control schemes were evaluated for

więcej »
**Numerical calculation of electrostatic forces in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS)**
Since the forces are one of the main parts of the interface between mechanical and electrical part, their calculation plays an important role
in the simulation of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). In this paper an approach for the numerical calculation of electrostatic forces in
MEMS is presented and applied to an electrostatic force microscope (EFM).
Streszczenie. Siła jest głównym elem

więcej »
**Numerical computation of electric fields including singularities in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS)**
In the simulation of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) the calculation of electric fields plays an important role. In many cases
electric fields near corners have to be calculated. Since in these cases the singular behavior has to be taken into account they deserve special
attention. An augmented finite element approach is presented and applied to an electrostatic force microscope (EFM).

więcej »
**Numerical simulation of eddy current problems in magnetic induction tomography**
Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a non-invasive technique for mapping the electrical properties of tissues. MIT is based on the
measurement of perturbations of an alternating magnetic excitation field by the eddy currents induced in a conducting object exposed to the field. In
this paper a simulation study of MIT is presented. Different aspects of using the finite element method to solve t

więcej »
**Optimization of electric field in contacts on example of making switch**
The environment of insulating system in which making switch functions is air and atmospheric pressure. Air is applied as isolation and as
extinguisher. The object of theoretical analysis of the area of insulating contact system is to assess a diversity of electric field in contact gap. The aim
of theoretical analysis is to find in making switch, areas which have the biggest sensitivity to breakd

więcej »
**Optimization of short-circuit power in industrial substations**
Short-circuit power in industrial substations is very essential operating information. On one hand side the lower short-circuit power, the
lower requirements for equipment. On the other hand the higher level of short-circuit power, the higher value of effectiveness of voltage regulation,
easier induction-motor start, lower voltage drop and easier identification of short-circuits by overcurrent p

więcej »
**Parallel computations of multiphase electromagnetic systems**
In this paper an effective approach for parallel computations of multiphase electromagnetic systems is presented. This method is used to
accelerate solving of multiphase models using socket interface algorithm. Discussed algorithm has been examined in example of 3D FE three-phase
transformer.
Streszczenie. W niniejszym artykule przedstawiona została efektywna metoda na zrównoleglenie obliczeń d

więcej »
**Parallel methods for matrix computations obtained in FEM**
The paper presents methods which could be used to accelerate solving models of electromagnetic devices. The modelling technique is
discussed both with the most crucial parts of modelling process. The most cost-effective computational issues are spread to solve them using
several parallel solvers. Two libraries for distributed computing were used in calculations to compare their speed and effecti

więcej »
**Phase characteristics of resonant contactless high power supplies**
High frequency power supply is used for inductive heating and contactless inductive power supplies. The experience with resonant
inverters for several power classes has shown that those with the higher power (more than 100 kW) may be negatively influenced by the phase
difference between voltage and current. The phase response of the inverter load circuit is complicated and depends on many parame

więcej »
**Portable system for eddy current nondestructive evaluation**
In this paper a new measurement system built for electromagnetic nondestructive testing of conducting materials is described. It is based
on PXI standard portable computer. Configuration of the hardware components currently used in the system and structure of the software is
presented.
Streszczenie. W artykule opisany został system pomiarowy do elektromagnetycznego testowania materiałów przewod

więcej »
**Probabilistic representations of active currents **
An optimization method for active current determination in the case of systems with stochastic waveforms has been proposed in the paper.
The active current for an ideal and non-ideal source-load system in which current is a normal stochastic process has been calculated. The results
have been analyzed and their interpretation has been given. Theoretical considerations have been illustrated by an

więcej »
**Properties of different representations of electroretinograms**
This paper discusses an application of classification algorithms for electroretinogram identification. These signals are 1-D electrical responses
of human retina for a light stimulus and are used in ophthalmology for diagnostic purposes. The authors studied the application of multilayer
perceptrons (MLP) for distinction between healthy and pathological recordings. Three different representations

więcej »
**Recent applications of electromagnetic nondestructive testing at power plants**
The electromagnetic nondestructive testing (NDT) method referred to as Eddy Current Testing (ECT, ET) has been used for the inspection
of critical power plant equipment such as turbine blades, electric generator rotors and retaining rings and tubular heat exchangers. Single and multifrequency
ET techniques have been combined with automated computer-based NDT systems to provide the field inspecto

więcej »
**Recognition of disturbances patterns correlated to equipment**
This paper presents a neural network and neuro-fuzzy approach to power quality assessment. Electrical equipment susceptibility to
disturbances varies from type to type. Additionally, not only one physical phenomenon (e.g. harmonics) can cause equipment malfunctioning or
damage, but more likely a superposition of some different disturbances. On the contrary, some disturbance levels higher than in

więcej »
**Reduction of eddy current losses by 2D-segmentation **
The paper discusses the influence of a combined longitudinal and transversal segmentation of magnetic cores on eddy current losses
based on an analytical solution of the underlying partial differential equation in the time-harmonic regime. Such a segmentation is often used for
permanent magnets in brushless synchronous machines in order to reduce losses generated by field harmonics of higher fre

więcej »
**Signal transmission characteristic of power distribution systems on ships for frequencies up to 500 kHz**
The analysis of the characteristics of power distribution systems on ships is presented. The multiconductor line theory is used for modeling
the typical configurations. The model parameters of the line are numerically calculated and experimentally validated. Proximity effect, inhomogeneity
of the medium and shield coupling are taken into account. Using the developed model the influence of shield

więcej »
**Statistic characteristics of BFSK signal in the presence of Gaussian noise**
In this paper we will consider the system for noncoherent demodulation of BFSK signal in the presence of Gaussian noise. We will derive
the probability density function of BFSK receiver output signal and the joint probability density function of the output signal and its derivative in order
to view the influence of the Gaussian noise and fading on the performances of the BFSK system.
Streszczen

więcej »
**The estimation time of life and time of health for Ni-MH accumulator**
In this paper a new method of estimating time of work for Ni-MH accumulator were proposed. In comparison with other solutions this
method works quite well without historic data of charge and discharge characteristics.
Streszczenie. W artykule zaproponowano nową metodę estymacji czasu pracy ogniwa typu Ni-MH. W porównaniu z innymi rozwiązaniami metoda
ta daje lepsze rezultaty przy braku danych h

więcej »
**The method for identification of fotocell in real time **
This paper describes the adaptation of the modified method of opinion the residuums in identification of state the photovoltaic cell. It was
introduced the "window classifier" of conditions of work the tested the photovoltaic module as well as define the liminal coefficient of efficiency.
Comparison got residuum with acceptable coefficient allow on effective opinion of state photo-cell in

więcej »
**The position transducers with magnetic microsensors**
The present paper proposes an original solution to increase the efficiency of cardamic suspension which ensures the stabilization of
horizontal position for gyrocompass and radar antenna. Two platforms that can spin simultaneously, but independent of each other, driven by two
direct current reversible motors are used. The signals that determine the value of the engine supply voltage are given by

więcej »
**Time-scaling of SISO and MIMO discrete-time systems**
The idea for time-scaling of output signals of linear and nonlinear SISO and MIMO discreet-time systems has been presented. It is shown,
that algorithms for SISO discrete-time systems can be useful for scaling of MIMO ones, if so-called V-model of MIMO system can be determined and
its SISO components can be scaled separately by equipping them with correctors processing the associated state varia

więcej »
**Topographic Matching Pursuit of spatio-temporal bioelectromagnetic data**
A method for multichannel biomedical signal analysis was developed and is presented in this paper. The method is based on the Matching
Pursuit algorithm. It creates approximations of spatiotemporal distributions of multichannel data using a relatively small number of components
chosen from a very big and redundant set. The components are distributed both in time and space and their amplitude and

więcej »
**Transient analysis of the induction machines at asymmetrical switching on the stator phase windings**
The paper reports an analysis of asymmetrical energizing the induction motor (IM) with help of the different schemes applied for formation
of the IM transientless start up. All models of the asymmetrical schemes are readily derived from a basic mathematical model of the IM in three
phases reference frame. It is shown the slow transient of the IM magnetising current during start up is the major r

więcej »
**ZnO thin film deposition with pulsed magnetron sputtering**
In this work, the pulse magnetron sputtering was applied to Zn-Bi-O thin films deposition. It was proved that the rate of metal target
sputtering with argon model plasma was highest when using DC-M bias, while reactive sputtering of metal or oxide targets was most effective in the
case of AC-M mode of biasing. The rates of material depositions were comparable or higher than those achievable with

więcej »