Glare is one of the most important parameter of lighting quality. Despite the passage of time from the beginning of glare research, no standard of conducting laboratory experiments was proposed. In the article the review of solutions related to glare assessment is presented. The method of conducting research on glare is also described. The authors pay attention to the most important aspects in the methodology of glare assessment for the experimental research on glare and glare assessment based on UGR measurements. The tests of the new algorithm for UGR calculation is presented — algorithm for precise identification and extraction of glare source area from HDR image.
Słowa kluczowe: discomfort glare assessment, experimental research on glare, UGR measurements, algorithm for precise identification and extraction of glare source area
Olśnienie jest jednym z najważniejszych parametrów jakości oświetlenia. Pomimo upływu czasu od rozpoczęcia badań nad olśnieniem, nie zaproponowano żadnego standardu prowadzenia eksperymentów laboratoryjnych. W artykule przedstawiono przegląd rozwiązań związanych z oceną olśnienia. Została także opisana metoda prowadzenia badań nad olśnieniem. Autorzy zwracają uwagę na najważniejsze aspekty metodyki oceny olśnienia w badaniach eksperymentalnych nad olśnieniem oraz metodyki oceny olśnienia w oparciu o pomiar UGR. Przedstawiono testy nowego algorytmu wyznaczania wskaźnika UGR; algorytmu precyzyjnego wyodrębniania obszaru źródła olśnienia na obrazie HDR.
Keywords: ocena olśnienia przykrego, eksperymentalne badania nad olśnieniem, pomiary UGR, algorytm precyzyjnego wyodrębniania obszaru źródła olśnienia
Light plays a very important role in a human life, especially artificial light allowing work and perform any activities after dark. Glare is one of the most important lighting quality parameter. It is accompanying the process of vision that affect human visual comfort, wellbeing and performance. It could be also the indirect reason of accidents at workplaces and other illuminated public and private areas. Depending on the type of glare (discomfort, disability, blinding) the accompanying risk is of different level . International standards and CIE documents define rules for discomfort glare assessment and application of relevant index: Unified Glare Rating (UGR) for indoor workplaces [2, 3, 4]. Additionally the development of application of imaging luminance measuring device (ILMD) allows for practical measurement of UGR. The formula for UGR determination and related requirements for maximum limit values of UGR are known for many years. However the studies concern glare assessment are still being carried out. They concern both exploration for a new glare metrics and development of new measurement methods for objective glare assessment. It is worth noting at this point that the measurement of glare refers to two independent issues: measurement under real conditions in order to assess the glare, based on UGR determination, measurement for testing glare perception under different glaring conditions and for the development of measurement methods. Conditions and rules of both issues of glare measurements are different. Despite the passage of many years from the beginning of glare research, no standard of conducting laboratory experiments was proposed. Each researcher conducts study according to his own original method and his own procedures, using equipment available in his own laboratory. This is due to the variety of factors affecting glare and the complexity of the research process. It is also difficul [...]
 Wolska A., Glare as specific factor in the working environment. Przegląd Elektrotechniczny, 89 (2013), n.1a, 142-144  Light and lighting. Lighting of Work Places. Part 1. Indoor Work Places. European Standard. EN 12464-1: 2011. European Committee for Standardization (CEN), Brussels  CIE, Discomfort glare in the interior working environment. CIE Publication No 55 International Commission on Illumination (CIE). Vienna 1983  CIE, Discomfort Glare in Interior Lighting. CIE Publication No 117 (TC 3-13). International Commission on Illumination (CIE). Vienna 1995  Parsons J.H., Glare, its causes and effects. The Illuminating Engineer, 1910, 3, 99-103  Holladay, L.L., The fundamentals of glare and visibility. J.Opt. Soc. Amer. 1926, n.12, 271-319  Hopkinson R.G., Bradley R.C., A study of glare from very large sources. Illum Eng. 55 (1960), n.5, 288-94  Petherbridge P, Hopkinson RG. 1950. Discomfort glare and the lighting of buildings. IESTrans. XV (1950), n.2, 39-79  Hopkinson R.G., The multiple criterion technique of subjective appraisal, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1950, n.2,3, 124-131  Hopkinson R.G., Evaluation of glare. Illum Eng. 52 (1957), n.6, 305-316  Hopkinson R.G., Glare from daylighting in buildings. Appl Ergon. 1972, n.3, 206-215  De Boer J.B., Visual perception in road traffic and the field of vision of the motorists. In: Public Lighting (de Boer J,B, ed.) Philips Technical Library, Eindhoven 1967. pp.11-96  De Boer J.B., Quality criteria for the passing beam of motocar headlights. Presented at the GTB Meeting in Walldorf, West Germany, 1973.  Carlucci S., Causone F., De Rosa F., Pagliano L. A review of indices for assessing visual comfort with a view to their use in optimization processes to support building integrated design. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 47 (2015), 1016- 1033  Sawicki D., Wolska A., The unified semantic glare scale for GR and UGR indexes, Proc. of the 2016 IEEE Lighting Conference of the Visegrad Countries (Lumen V4), 13-16.09.2016 Karpacz, Poland  Summers A.J. Lighting and the Office Environment: A Review. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 35 (1989), Issue 1, 15-24  Clear R.D., Discomfort glare: what do we actually know? Lighting Research & Technology, 45 (2013), n.2, 141-158  Pierson C., Wienold J., Bodart M. Review of Factors Influencing Discomfort Glare Perception from Daylight. LEUKOS The Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society. 14 (2018), Issue 3, 111-148  Paul B. The assessment of light sources, 1997, M.Sc Thesis, University of Cape Town, South Africa  Paul B, Einhorn H.D., Discomfort glare from small light sources, Lighting Research & Technology, 31 (1999), n.4, 139-144  Osterhaus W.K.E., Bailey L.L., Large area glare sources and their effect on visual discomfort and visual performance at computer workstations. Conference: Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, 1992., Conference Record of the 1992 IEEE DOI: 10.1109/IAS.1992.244537  Hopkinson R.G., Collins W.M., An Experimental Study of the Glare from a Luminous Ceiling, Transactions of the Illuminating Engineering Society (London), Lighting Research & Technology 28 (1963), n.4, 142-148  Fekete J., Sik‐Lányi C., Schanda J., Spectral discomfort glare sensitivity investigations, Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics, 30 (2010), n.2, 182-187  Flannagan M.J., Subjective and objective aspects of headlamp glare: effects of size and spectral power distribution, 1989, The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2150, U.S.A. Report No. UMTRI-99-36  Guth S.K., Comfortable brightness relationships for critical and casual seeing, Illuminating Engineering, 46 (1951), n.2, 65  Lulla A.B., Bennet C.A., Discomfort glare: Range effects, Journal of IES, 10 (1981), n.2, 74  Kent M., Fotios S., Altomonte S., An experimental study on the effect of visual tasks on discomfort due to peripheral glare, LEUKOS, 2018 , 1-12, DOI: 10.1080/15502724.2018.1489282  Kim W., Kim J.T.A., Position Index Formula for Evaluation of Glare Source in the Visual Field , Indoor and Built Environment. 20 (2011), issue 1, 47-53.  Luckiesh M., Guth S.K., Discomfort glare and angular distance of glare source, Illuminating Engineering, 41 (1946), n.6, 485 PRZEGLĄD ELEKTROTECHNICZNY, ISSN 0033-2097, R. 95 NR 1/2019 175  Wonwoo K., Yasuko K., MELO O., Position Index for a Glare Source in the Whole Visual Field. Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Institute of Japan, 88 (2004), n.07  Ostberg O., Stone P.T., Benson R.A., Free magnitude estimation of discomfort glare and working task difficulty. Goteborg Psychological Reports. 15 (1975), 5, 1.  Sivak M., Flannagan M., Discomfort glare is task dependent. Proc CIE 22 nd Session, Melbourne 1991.  Ma S., Yang Y., Ronnier M., Liu L.X., Assessing and modeling discomfort glare for raw white LEDs with different patterns. Leukos, 13 (2017), issue 2, 59-70  Yang Y., Ma S.N., luo M.R., Liu X.Y., Discomfort glare caused by non-uniform white led matrices . Proceedings of 28th CIE Session 2015, Manchester, UK , 27 June - 4 July, 2015, 393- 399  Yang, M Ronnier Luo, Ma S.N., Liu X.Y., Assessing glare. Part 1: Comparing uniform and non-uniform LED luminaires, Lighting Research & Technology, 49 (2017), n.2, 195-210  Yang, M Ronnier Luo, Ma S-N: Assessing glare. Part 2: Modifying Unified Glare rating for uniform and non-uniform LED luminaires LED luminaires, Lighting Research & Technology, 49 (2017), n.6, 727-742  Donners MAH, Vissenberg MCJM, Geedrinck LM, van den Broek-Cools JHF, Buddermeijer -Lock A. A psychophysical model of discomfort glare in both outdoor and indoor applications. Proceedings of 28th CIE Session 2015, Manchester, UK , 27 June - 4 July, 2015, 1602-1610  Schier GH, Hanselaer P, Bracke P, Deconinck G, Ryckaert Calculation of the unified glare rating based on luminance maps for uniform and non-uniform light sources. Building and Environment, 84 (2015), 60-67.  Schier GH, Hanselaer P, Van de Perre L, Ryckaert WR, Effectof luminance contrast on the perception of discomfort, Proceedings of 28th CIE Session 2015, Manchester, UK, 27 June - 4 July, 2015, 1870-1876.  Nakamura, Y., Takahashi, R., Sasabe, K.: Prediction of Discomfort Glare of a Non-Uniform Light Source by Use of Its Luminance Image. Proceedings of 28th CIE Session. Manchester 2015. pp. 400- 408.  Funke C, Schierz Ch. Extension of the unified glare rating formula for non-uniform led luminaires. Proceedings of 28th CIE Session 2015, Manchester, UK, 27 June - 4 July, 2015, 1471-1480.  Eble-Hankins M.L. Subjective impression of discomfort glare from sources of non-uniform luminance. Architectural Engineering - Dissertations and Student Research. Paper 1., 2008, University of Nebraska -Lincoln  Eble-Hankins M.L., Waters C.E., Subjective impressions of discomfort glare from sources of non-uniform luminance, Leukos, 6 (2009), issue 1, 51-77.  Tashiro T., Kawanobe S., Kimura-Minoda T., Discomfort glare for white LED light sources with different spatial arrangements, Lighting Research and Technology, 47 (2015), Issue 3, 316- 337.  Manabe H., The assessment of discomfort glare in practical lighting installations. Otemon Economic Studies. 1976, 9. Otemon Gakuin University, Osaka, Japan  Stone P.T., Harker S.D.P., Individual and group differences in discomfort glare responses. Lighting Research and Technology 5 (1973), issue 1, 41-49  Boyce P.R., Crisp V.H.C., Simons R.H., Rowlands E., Discomfort glare sensation and prediction. Proc CIE 19th Session, Kyoto 1979, 260  Akashi Y., Muramatsu R., Kanaya S., Unified Glare Rating (UGR) and subjective appraisal of discomfort glare. Lighting Research and Technology, 28 (1996), Issue 4, 199-206  Boyce P.R., Hunter C.M., Inclan C., Overhead glare and visual discomfort. Journal of IES, winter 2003, 73-88  Sawicki D. Wolska A. Discomfort glare prediction by different methods. Lighting Research & Technology, 47 (2015), issue 6, 658-671  Geerdinck L.M., Glare perception in terms of acceptance and comfort [graduation report]. Eindhoven University of Technology 2012  Geerdinck L.M., Van Gheluwe J.R., Vissenberg M.C.J.M., Discomfort glare perception of non-uniform light sources in an office setting, Journal of Environmental Psychology. 39 (2014), 5-13  Cai H., Chung T., Evaluating discomfort glare from non-uniform electric light sources. Lighting Research & Technology, 45 (2013), issue 3, 267-294  Lou D., Deng S., Bian J., Van der Burgt P.J.M., Evaluation of Glare from Non-Uniform Indoor Luminaires. Proceedings of 28th CIE Session. Manchester 2015. 1860-1869  Iacomussi P., Radis M., Rossi G., Rossi L., Visual Comfort with LED Lighting. Energy Procedia, 78 (2015), 729-734  Melo O., An Assessment on the Limitations of the Unified Glare Rating (UGR) System. Comparison between Eastern and Western Subjects. Kyushu University - Graduate School of Human-Environment Studies, Universidade de Kyushu, Japão.,25.03.2002, 133-136  Wolska A., Sawicki D. Evaluation of discomfort glare in the 50+ elderly: experimental study International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 27 (2014), n.3, 444-459  Bargary G., Jia Y., Barbur J.L., Mechanisms for discomfort glare in central vision. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 56 (2015), n.1, 464-471  CIE. Research Roadmap for Healthful Interior Lighting. International Commission on Illumination (CIE), ED/TR TC 3- 46, 2016  Akashi Y., Asano S., Kakuta Y. Visual Mechanisms of Discomfort Glare Sensation Caused by LEDs. Proc. of the CIE Centenary Conference Towards a New Century of Light, 15-16 April 2013, Paris, France, 327-330  Cai H., Chung T., Evaluating discomfort glare from non-uniform electric light sources. Lighting Research & Technology, 45 (2013), issue 3, 267-294  Sendrup P., Generalization of the unified glare rating method: a proposal and laboratory test. Lighting Research & Technology. 33 (2001), issue 4, 243-257  Berman S.M., Bullimore M.A., Bailey I.L., Jacobs R.J. The Influence of Spectral Composition on Discomfort Glare for Large-Size Sources. Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, 25 (1996), n.1  Bullough J.D., Brons J.A., Qi R., Rea M.S.,. Predicting discomfort glare from outdoor lighting installations. Lighting Research & Technology, 40 (2008), 225-242  Sweater-Hickcox K.,Narendran N., Bullough J.D., Freyssinier J.P. Effect of different coloured luminous surrounds on LED discomfort glare perception. Lighting Research & Technology. 45 (2013), issue 4, 464-475  Nonne J., Renoux D., Rossi L. Metrology for solid-state lighting quality. Proc. of The 16th International Congress of Metrology. October 7-10th 2013, Paris, France. 14004, 1-8  Jiang C-J., Sun C-C., Chen Y-C. Yang T-H., Chang N., The correlation of veiling luminance and unified glare rating with a transfer function. Lighting Research & Technology. 46 (2014), issue 5, 587-592  Rea M.S., Mou X., Bullough J.D. Scene brightness of illuminated interiors. Lighting Research & Technology. 48 (2016) issue 7, 823-831  Kim J.T., Shin J.Y., YUN G.Y. Prediction of discomfort glare from windows: Influence of the subjective evaluation of window views. Proc. of The 5th International Symposium on Sustainable Healthy Buildings (SHB2011), Seoul, Korea. 10 February 2011. 283-289  Karlsen L., Heiselberg P., Bryn I., Johra H. Verification of simple illuminance based measures for indication of discomfort glare from windows. Building and environment. 92 (2015), 615- 626  Kim W., Koga Y., Effect of local background luminance on discomfort glare. Building and Environment, 38 (2004), 1435- 1442  Kim W., Kim J.T., Effect of Background Luminance on Discomfort Glare in Relation to the Glare Source Size. Indoor and Built Environment, 19 (2010), n.1, 175-183  Kim W., Han H., Kim J.T. The position index of a glare source at the borderline between comfort and discomfort (BCD) in the whole visual field. Building and Environment, 44 (2009), 1017- 1023  Tyukhova Y.I., Discomfort glare from small, high luminance light sources in outdoor nighttime environments (PhD thesis). 2015, University of Nebraska - Lincoln, USA, 176 PRZEGLĄD ELEKTROTECHNICZNY, ISSN 0033-2097, R. 95 NR 1/2019  Altomonte S., Kent M.G., Tregenza P.R., Wilson R. Visual task difficulty and temporal influences in glare response. Building and Environment. 95 (2016), 209-226  Kent M.G., Altomonte S., Tregenza P.R., Wilson R., Discomfort glare and time of day. Lighting Research & Technology. 47 (2015), issue 6, 641-657  Tuaycharoen N., Tregenza P.R. Discomfort glare from interesting images. Lighting Research & Technology. 37 (2005), n.4, 329-341  Littlefield R. Theory of the “No-Parallax" Point in Panorama Photography. Version 1.0, February 6, 2006. Availavle from http://www.janrik.net/PanoPostings/NoParallaxPoint/TheoryOfT heNoParallaxPoint.pdf (last accessed 09.11.2018)  Entrance Pupil Database. https://wiki.panotools.org/Entrance_Pupil_Database (last accessed 09.11.2018)  Finding The No Parallax Point. http://www.reallyrightstuff.com/finding-the-no-parallax-point (last accessed 09.11.2018)  Reinhard E., Ward G., Pattanaik S., Debevec P., High Dynamic Range Imaging. Morgan Kaufmann 2006  LMK Mobile Advanced. Documentation and Instruction Manual of the TechnoTeam’s LMK Photometer System. Available also from http://www.technoteam.de/ (last accessed 15.12.2017)  Camera Sensor Ratings by DxO Mark. http://www.dxomark.com/index.php/Cameras/Camera-Sensor- Ratings/%28metrics%29/ (last accessed 23.01.2017)  Canon EOS 550D Instruction Manual. Retrieved 29 October 2013, from http://www.canoneurope. com/support/consumer_products/products/cameras/digi tal_slr/eos_550d.aspx?type=manuals&language=EN.  Sawicki D., Wolska A., (2013). Algorithm of HDR image preparation for discomfort glare assessment. Przeglad Elektrotechniczny, 89 (2013), n.2a, 87-90  Wolf S. Entwicklung und Aufbau eines Leuchtdichte- Analysators zur Messung von Blendungskennzahlen. PhD Thesis. Technische Universität Ilmenau 2004.  Porsch T., Funke C., Schmidt F., Schierz Ch., Measurement of the Unified Glare Rating (UGR) based on using ILMD. Proc. of the 28th CIE SESSION, Manchester, UK, June 28 - July 4, 2015. 536-542